人々が健康で安心して働ける労働環境を目指して96年…

労働科学 93巻5号 労働と生活と環境に関する総合的研究

印刷

表紙

書誌情報

  • 定価: 1,500円
  • 体裁: B5判

目次

  1. 原著
    1. 日勤短縮による深夜勤前の勤務間隔時間の延長が看護師の睡眠と疲労感に及ぼす効果
      松元 俊
    2. 健常者の車いす下り坂走行時の動作と心理に及ぼす身体動作制限の影響
      三上ゆみ, 中村孝文, 田内雅規
  2. □学会だより
    1. <日本応用心理学会第84回大会>
  3. □文献紹介
    1. <ヨーロッパ27会社におけるゼロ事故ビジョン実施のためのコミットメントとコミュニケーション、文化、学習の重要性>
    2. <バス運転手のスプリット勤務とストレス,健康,心理社会的労働要因の関係>

抄録

日勤短縮による深夜勤前の勤務間隔時間の延長が看護師の睡眠と疲労感に及ぼす効果

松元 俊

労働科学,93(5),139~147,(2017)

公立病院の8時間3交代制に就く22名の看護師に対して深夜勤前の日勤を半日勤に試行的に変更した。その結果,深夜勤務前の日中にとられる仮眠は日勤条件に比して勤務間隔の延長をともなう半日勤条件で長く(p<0.01),また半日勤条件における仮眠は分割してとるほうが一括でとるよりも睡眠時間が長かった(p<0.01)。半日勤条件では日勤条件に比して,日勤終了時もしくは半日勤終了時から深夜勤終了時までの疲労感は抑制された(p<0.001)。しかし,勤務条件および仮眠のとり方(一括もしくは分割)による睡眠時間の長さにかかわらず,深夜勤時の疲労感は開始時から終了時に向かい増加し,改善されなかった。(図3表1)

健常者の車いす下り坂走行時の動作と心理に及ぼす身体動作制限の影響

三上ゆみ, 中村孝文, 田内雅規

労働科学,93(5),148~159,(2017)

健常者に身体動作制限を施して下り坂走行をした場合の影響について,生理,心理,行動面から明らかにすることを目的とした。健常成人19名を被験者とし,下り坂の制動を繰り返しながら走行する際のトルク,筋電図,足底圧,制動効果に対する不安感を計測した。脊髄損傷を想定し,体幹の固定と足底を浮かせることによる動作制限を加えた。動作制限がない場合は,フットレストを踏むことで生じる足底への反力を利用して体幹姿勢を固定し制動していた。一方,制限が有る場合は,制動時の肘の屈曲やハンドリム把持力を強めていた。下肢では各筋群の等尺性収縮が観察され,体幹では腹直筋の活動が高まった。これらは制限を代償するための反応と解釈された。心理計測では,制限により,制動中の十分な制動力の発揮及び完全な停止と停止状態の維持への不安が増加した。身体動作制限により代償動作が生じたが,制動効果に対する不安感は有意に増加した。今回の制限方法に関する知見は、技法開発の基礎資料になり得ると考えられた。(図6)

CONTENTS

  1. Review & Original
    1. Eff ects of changing the shift pattern from a full-day shift to a half-day shift before a night shift on sleep and subjective fatigue I hospital nurses
      Matsumoto S.
    2. Behavioral and psychological eff ects of physical movement restriction of able-bodied subjects incurred while descending on ramps of various steepness by a wheelchair
      Mikami Y. et al.
  2. Abstracting Service

Abstract

Effects of changing the shift pattern from a full-day shift to a half-day shift before a night shift on sleep and subjective fatigue I hospital nurses

Matsumoto S.

THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF LABOUR, Vol.93, No.5, 139-147, (2017)

The effects of changing the shift pattern from a full-day shift to a half-day shift before a subsequent night shift on sleep and subjective fatigue were investigated in 20 nurses working on the same ward of a public hospital. They participated in both conditions of the full-day shift and the half-day shift before a night shift each for one month. A total of 16 nurses (14 females and 2 males, mean age 37.4±8.4) completed daily work and sleep logs and subjective fatigue questionnaires during each shift condition. As a result, the nap taken before a night shift was significantly longer on the half-day shift condition than on the full-day shift condition (p<0 .01). Subjective fatigue from the day shift start to the night shift end was significantly suppressed on the half-day shift condition in comparison with the full-day shift condition (p<0 .001). However, when the effects of the prophylactic nap time of the full-day and the half-day shift conditions were compared between either one nap time or two nap times, subjective fatigue at the night shift did not significantly decrease in the studied shift conditions and nap times. Therefore, it became clear that although subjective fatigue was significantly suppressed on the half-day shift condition in comparison with the full-day shift condition, subjective fatigue of the night shift did not decrease by changing the length of the prophylactic nap time.

Behavioral and psychological effects of physical movement restriction of able-bodied subjects incurred while descending on ramps of various steepness by a wheelchair

Mikami Y. et al.

THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF LABOUR, Vol.93, No.5, 148-159, (2017)

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the physical movement restriction of able-bodied subjects incurred while descending on ramps by a wheelchair from a physiological, psychological, and behavioral perspective. Methods: The subjects included 19 healthy adults. Measurements of torque, electromyography, plantar pressure, and anxiety about the effectiveness of braking were performed while subjects braked repeatedly on a downhill slope. Their trunks were immobilized and their legs were lifted to restrict their movement. Results: In the absence of restrictions on movement, subjects braked while using the reactive force generated against the soles of the feet, by pressing their feet down on the footrest to maintain their trunk posture. When movement was restricted, subjects displayed increased elbow flexion while braking. Isometric contractions of the leg muscles were observed, as well as increased activity of the rectus abdominis. These were interpreted as compensatory reactions to the restrictions. Psychometric tests showed that anxiety about the effectiveness of braking and the ability to perform and maintain complete stop increased by the restrictions on movement. Conclusion: Although restrictions of physical movement caused compensatory actions, the significant increase in anxieties to braking effect suggests that the restrictions seems effective at simulating partly the experience of a disability to allow healthy subjects to appreciate the perspective of a wheelchair user.