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労働科学 93巻2号

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井上枝一郎
産業事故の調査とその方法について―ヒューマンエラーが関与する事故を中心として―
労働科学,93(2),35~47,(2017)
 産業事故の調査方法について述べたものである。指摘事項は,調査が様々な阻害要因によって真の原因把握に至らないこと,その結果,事故原因は「分かり易い原因」,「早い結論が得られる原因」,「対策コストが掛からない原因」となる。したがって,対策と言えば,人間系に絡む「意識高揚」や「安全教育」となる。この認識から,事故調査には次の視点が必要である。1,調査スタッフは独立し,強い権限が与えられていなければならない。2,科学的な手法で行われなければならない。3,原因には必ず組織要因が存在すると考えておかなければならない。この観点を具体化するため,調査を行う側の備えるべき技法と態度とをRCA法を例に採って記述している。
キーワード:産業事故,人的過誤,事故分析,事故報告書,事故面接

SHIICHIRO INOUE
About the investigation of an industrial accident with the focus on human error causes of the accident
THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF LABOUR, 93 (2), 35-47, (2017)
This article describes points of attention derived from conventional experiences about investigation methods of human error accidents in the industrial world. The following points are emphasized. First, a true cause of an accident cannot be grasped in accident investigations due to various disincentives. Second, we are not able to take effective measures accordingly. As a result, a cause of the accident is always referred to as "the cause easy to understand for everyone", "the cause from which a quick conclusion is obtained" and "the cause by which a countermeasure does not cost a lot of money". Therefore, in most cases, a cause is found to be a human error thus defined. And a measure may be recommended as a conclusion relying on hu- man reorientation based on this etiology. Any accident investigation has to be performed from the following points of view based on this recognition. First, the investigation staff must be independent of all relevant organizations. Second, the investigation staff should have the strong authority. Third, the investigations have to be performed by using scientific methods. Fourth, an investigation staff member must consider organizational factors that do exist within a cause of the accident. At the end of the discussion, the "actual example" performed by an actual business establishment is introduced as a useful reference for other business establishments.
Key Words: Industrial accident, Human error, Accident analysis, Accident report, Accident interview

福岡幸二
事故モデルの動向と各産業に適用できる事故モデル
労働科学,93(2),48~60,(2017)
 事故は,産業の種類を問わず発生し,毎年多くの人命と財産が失われ,事故防止は喫緊の課題である。本研究は,各産業が効果的な事故防止策を講じることができるようになることを目的として事故モデルの歴史的背景と事故モデルの適用分野について紹介する。事故モデルは,連続的事故モデル, 疫学的事故モデル及びシステミック事故モデルに分類され, 産業の特質である追跡の難度及び結合の度合い並びに事故の形態に応じて選択すべきことを鑑み,事故防止策には,各産業に適した科学的事故調査,事故モデルの使用を含む体系的な防止策が必要であることを示した。
キーワード:事故モデル;事故防止;安全;スイスチーズモデル;STAMP

Koji FUKUOKA
Accident models and their applicable industries
THE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF LABOUR, 93 (2), 48-60, (2017)
Accidents occur in every industry, incurring great loss of life and property. Therefore, accident prevention adjusted to particular types of accidents is an urgent issue. The objective of this study is to introduce the history and application of accident models in each industry and suggest effective accident prevention measures taking these models into account. Accident models are divided into major categories: sequential, epidemiological, and systemic. The accident model suited to each situation should be selected in accordance with the degree of tractability and coupling in the characteristics of each industry as well as the type of accident. Organizations must establish systematic accident prevention measures, which include scientific investigations and accident models that are applicable to the industry.
Key Words: Accident model; Accident prevention; Safety; Swiss cheese model; STAMP